Key events during the turmoil since Libyan dictator Moamer Kadhafi was toppled in October 2011.
The country is currently run by rival parliaments and governments — one close to Islamist-led groups and the other backed by the international community.
– October 23: The National Transitional Council declares Libya’s “total liberation” three days after Kadhafi is killed.
Thousands of people have died in fighting between forces loyal to Kadhafi and NATO-backed rebels.
– February – June: Tribal clashes grip Kufra, Sebha and Zintan leaving more than 200 dead as the new authorities struggle to control a plethora of rival ex-rebel militias.
– May 8: Security forces repel armed demonstrators who attack government headquarters in Tripoli. On June 4, a militia group targets the capital’s airport.
– July 7: Libyans vote for the first time to elect a national assembly, the General National Congress (GNC).
– September 11: Ambassador Chris Stevens and three other US citizens are killed in an assault on the US consulate in Libya’s second city Benghazi.
– Late July: Libyan oil exports plunge after protesting guards force the closure of shipping terminals. Authorities regain full control only a year later.
– March 2: Protesters storm the GNC after it decides to unilaterally extend its mandate, attacking lawmakers.
– May 16: Forces loyal to rogue general Khalifa Haftar attack predominantly-Islamist fighters in Benghazi. The authorities accuse Haftar of launching a coup but give him support months later as fighting rages.
– June 25: A new parliament is elected to replace the GNC, amid a battle for power between Islamist-backed groups and nationalists.
– July: Benghazi falls into the hands of militias. In August, a coalition of Islamist-led militias led by the Fajr Libya group seizes control of Tripoli after weeks of bitter clashes.
The GNC decides to resume work, and the country has two parliaments.
Since then, the government of Abdullah al-Thani, which has Western backing, and the new parliament, which is dominated by anti-Islamist parties, have been exiled in eastern Libya.
– September 2: The GNC approves a parallel government presented by Omar al-Hassi, a figure close to the Islamists who proclaims himself head.
– October 18: Operations against mainly Islamist fighters west of Tripoli and in Benghazi, carried out by forces loyal to Haftar and militias that back the pro-Western government, are placed under its command.
– December 31: French Defence Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian urges allies to prevent the creation of a jihadist “sanctuary” in Libya that could destabilise the region and threaten Europe.
– January 16: Warring Libyan factions agree in Geneva on a plan to form a unity government after two days of UN-brokered talks. They call for a ceasefire.